Trunks, Tusks, and Big Brains|象鼻、象牙,和『大』脑

by Evan M. Gioia

It is said that elephants never forget a face, but they also never cease to amaze.

  In the 1970s, two Asian elephants, Jenny and Shirley, performed in the same traveling circus for a few months only to be separated soon afterward. In 1999, after being apart for more than 20 years, Jenny and Shirley were _(1)_ at the Elephant Sanctuary in Hohenwald, Tennessee. Shirley and Jenny spent every last waking moment together foraging for food, drinking from creeks, or sleeping in their den. Sadly, these two friends were separated once and _(2)_ all when Jenny died in 2006. Jenny and Shirley's _(3)_ reunion provides an amazing insight into these animals' incredible powers of intelligence, compassion, and memory.

  The source of elephants' remarkable cognitive abilities lies _(4)_ their enlarged brains. Naturally, big animals have huge brains, though it is the _(5)_ of elephants' brains that rivals that of even the cleverest beasts in the animal kingdom. This is most _(6)_ demonstrated in how elephants grieve over the loss of a loved one. In the wild, when an elephant dies, the other members of the herd will stand around the carcass _(7)_ mournfully for hours until sunrise. Soon afterwards, they will take tree branches, sticks, and leaves to cover the remains as if to bury the _(8)_ elephant. Elephants are the only animals, besides humans, that have recognizable rituals for death. These ritualistic behaviors play a pivotal role in the inner workings of elephant society.

  Most elephants in the wild live in highly matriarchal, close-knit families. Matriarchs will lead a mixed group of 20 to 30 sisters, aunts, daughters, and young calves, with each sharing in the responsibilities of daily life. Older male elephants typically live out their days in _(9)_. They join a herd only during mating season. It is this tight family structure _(10)_ helps young calves to learn about their environment, so that after 20 years they may still remember their favorite watering holes, places to forage, and even their best friends they have not seen in years.

(A) in (B) solitude (C) for (D) trumpeting (E) deceased

(F) reunited (G) that (H) complexity (I) heartwarming (J) acutely




  1970 年代,两头名叫珍妮和雪莉的亚洲象在同一个巡回马戏团里表演了几个月的时间,但不久后就被分开了。珍妮和雪莉彼此分离二十多年后,牠们终于在 1999 年于田纳西州霍恩沃尔德的大象保护区再度重逢。在生命的最后时光里,雪莉和珍妮时时刻刻都待在一起,牠们一同觅食、一同在溪边喝水或是一同在牠们的兽栏里睡觉。遗憾的是,珍妮于 2006 年去世,这对好友便彻底地分离了。珍妮和雪莉之间温馨的重逢让我们对于这些动物惊人的智慧、同情心和记忆力有了深刻的了解。



答案: 1. F 2. C 3. I 4. A 5. H

6. J 7. D 8. E 9. B 10. G



Trunks, Tusks, and Big Brains|象鼻、象牙,和『大』脑